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Making the difference in Chromathography.

Micro Planar Liquid Chromatography has been developed in 2007 at Institute for Chromatography.
It was published in special parts at certain international symposia in 2008 

NOTE: you should have ADOBE Reader 9.0 or higher on your computer to faster load and see the paper as ppt/pdf file.

The theoretical basics for µ-PLC and the practical reasons why to develop a new micro technique for the still and unchanged important planar chromatography will be available in English language later in 2009.

We are still working on the detailed concept of the new micro technique µ-PLC, its fundamental difference to TLC, HPTLC and OPLC, its qualitative and quantitative application and its up-to-now not believed quantitative precision and accuracy (often a factor ten better than with top instrumental HPTLC of today). µ-PLC is the only planar chromatography technique with a sampling volume range from nl to one full ml. It is up to now the only technique which allows for 100% save critical sample comparison. This is possible as the samples overlap locally each other but by part only in bow areas within a limited plate range, where physics, chemistry and time is absolutely identical for the chromatography of to be compared neighboring samples. This situation never exists with any other technique in chromatography. Thus if in µ-PLC samples differ than they differ by 100 % guarantee. In all other chromatography techniques a difference may be caused by time or any of the very many physical and chemical differences of and inside columns, capillaries or plates. Thus there is always a certain range of systematic errors possible causing false differences ending up this way with open questions in analytical results. Of course: absolute correct taking treating and giving samples is a condition sine qua non - a real analyst is able to do it.


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Unique Chromatogaphy


the information source about systematic errors
in analytical chromatography,
about which
you normally find nothing
in REGULATED methods.

This SITE includes the fundamentals of an alternative chromatography theory
based on TIME and statistics.

It has been added (as “Altern.Chrom.Theory”) because of a serious systematic error in GC as well as in HPLC.
The accuracy and precision to measure and record chromatography data was in the early fifties quite under developped. Statistical thinking only was popular but led to a poor chromatography model. Especially SEPARATION is better understood if one uses a sample mixture instead of a single substance. Click onto --> Alternative Chromatography Theory

The key effect which led to the alternative theory was the full size use of the standard data pair in chromatography:
retention time (tms) and the peak width in halfe height
(b0.5) but at highest time accuracy for a series of consecutive homologues like the
n-alkanes in GC or nitro benzoic esters in HPLC. This showed at first, that chromatography is a most accurate and precise analytical tool but it also showed clearly, that the classical theory cannot correctly quantitize NON chromatographic values like the dead time (tm) and the non chromatographic instrumental and technique based EXTRA peak width value (bm). The latter reduces quite strong the separation power of columns and capillaries.
How drastically poor time values disqualify the basis of the physical separation power is seen in data examples at the end of this chapter about the new chromatography theory.

Do NOT beliefe, that any regulation / certification causes methods, which produce error free data for sure with YOUR sample, although the regulated modes may run error free. But in the minute you use YOUR sample it is YOUR responsibility what you report and sign ! Sharp enough ? Correct ? Or only regulated based on certified materials and tools ?
And don´t believe, that the classical theory helps much to improve the to-day analytical
C-techniques. Thinking in time instead of volume and flow is it !

Latest Analytical NEWS : µ-PLC
Latest REK-paper:click here

Institute for Chromatography has been serving chromatographers from over 55 countries since 1972 in analytical CHROMATOGRAPHY. We specialized in correct, precise, affordable analytical data by GC, HPLC, HPTLC / µ-PLC. Our top speciality is “finding and reducing qualitative and quantitative systematic errors”, a field about which only a very few experts are willing to work and report. However just the systematic error is most critical in all chromatography areas.
And this is one topic of this virtual Institute for Chromatography: Detection and Reduction of Systematic Errors. The other is: Micro Planar Liquid chromatography as the first “green” TLC technique: optimally small, very economical, very accurate and precise, as far as possible free from “bad solvents”. If you want to see a video: information is HERE .
We add proposals for elegant problem solutions, forgotten, never used or just not understood but important and most helpful details of gas-, column-liquid and thin-layer chromatography “secrets”. Now we are free to talk about.... (and invite you, to think about or just to do it. It will work).

founded in 1972

in Bad Duerkheim / Palatinate / Germany

we are in the INTERNET, globally, and in easier reach.

The international language of the chromatographers family are CHROMATOGRAMS but this site shows no one single classical elution chromatogram.
We feature a NEW look onto elution chromatograms: completely quantitative, covering the whole range of concentration,

equally in size, highly flexible, quantitative even in the qualitative range.

On one page is the whole result of a chromatographic analysis concentrated as a figure with two axes: The y-axis is the QUANTITY axis giving area-%, weight-%, or mole-% in a linear or a logarithmic scale depending on the concentration range.
The X-axis is the QUALITY scale given in retention time, k-data, or index values again on a linear or logarithmic scale - see figure 1 below.

We use theoretical concepts which were developed at IfC in the last 50 years combining GC with HPLC with Planar Chromatography for most effective practical reasons. It is not important how the chromatographer gets information. ONLY important is that he gets correct and complete information as all decisions based on his data are only as correct and complete as the results of his most often vital work.

Browse our Web site for more information about other - and truly better - modes to check for the quality of a column, capillary, plate. And how to check the accuracy of sample taking - sample giving - quantitation. Finally the complete and correct evaluation as well as critical comparison in gas chromatography, high pressure column liquid chromatography and high performance planar chromatography is of fundamental importance and seldom done the full range possible. Too often details are overlooked which count or may be the answer for solving an analytical problem.

We have developed in hard years of global check outs by our many thousand course visitors new methods or tools for quality control widely unknown in the standard literature like the
“Error Detector sf4”. It finds systematic errors by simple mathematical statistics. Don’t worry: it is very easy to use “sf4” if some computer power and some specific software is available.

Figure 1 chromatogram comparison, new look. The identification run (the upside down line) represents saturated normal hydrocarbons (normal alkanes) from C14 to C32. Useful for GC analyses with wide ranging quantity and quality values

All navigation words and symbols are in blue and underlined.

It is our policy to respect the privacy of individuals who visit the Site or provide comments to us.

Thanks to all of the hundreds of chromatography colleagues from
Germany, Slovenia, USA, Russian Federation, Belgium, The Netherlands, Hungary, United Kingdom, Sweden, Switzerland, Canada, South Africa, Italy, Poland, Chile, Argentina, Brasilia....,
who helped me by close cooperation and years of friendly qualified discussion for understanding, doing and teaching chromatography- 
Rudolf E. Kaiser 
Updated April 1, 2016. 


You may try the German sister site of, which contains latest papers given as a PowerPoint presentation. Unfortunately ppt/pdf -files need a longer loading time but select
from where you can easily return to this main site. But have a look into the IfC-News there (in German)

About the first paper on Three Phases Chromatography see HERE . Have a look into the µ-PLC SITE .

This is an Internet-only book, free available in the internet (only).
The latest paper of the author given at the 8th BALATON Symposium on High-Performance Separation Methods and the 15th International Symposium on Separation Sciences Siofok (Hungary) Sep. 1. - 4., 2009 is now available here . Title: Drastic Reduction of the Structure Error in Quantitative Planar Chromatography. The latest issue of the OpenAccess book on µ-PLC includes first pages on water trace analysis - with unexpected results about fluorescing traces which chemisorb on silica gel of the plate layer.

There is a critical paper in this site - see “Paper 2010”. May be you also do not like any method
(over)regulation. So you may agree with the authors proposal given in this paper (ppt/pdf type).

The first ‘INFO VIDEO’ just for information and for nothing to buy or pay is in easy reach. No language problem because there is no word to hear. I invite you to start publishing detailed chromatography information and ‘tricks’, ‘tips’ via VIDEO !

Clicking the LINK below brings you to the first (mini) VIDEO about how µ-PLC, a most powerful COMPARE analysis technique, works. You need the proper plug-ins to see the video. It works at best under Google Chrome as browser in latest MAC’s, under WIN 7.
The 4.5 minutes VIDEO (over 7500 jpg’s are crunched from 150 to < 20 MB) is limited sharp and done under critical conditions of minimized light because of the heat effect on a HPTLC plate. The easiest way to have a look onto this short (soundless) video is a click onto this LINK:


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Grow with Us

We can help in Gas Chromatography (GC), in High Performance Column Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), in Planar Chromatography (TLC, HPTLC, PLC) and in all aspects of how to find, reduce, even avoid serious systematic analytical errors.

Chromatography looks (often) like a simple “push one button” mode of analysis. It looks like clever computer software “does it”. This is not true. Software is the most important helper of the chromatographer, but cleverness is often missing and correct thinking about the best way and found results is an art only humans can manage.

There are very many sources and reasons to get less precise or non accurate analytical data. Precise and complete enough analytical results are basis for correct decision making giving the analyst high responsibility. Sometimes “data readers” are far away from the chromatographer, his sample taking problems (by mode, place, time, frequency....) so that the necessary information chain is broken and miss decision is possible causing serious trouble.

Chromatography data can show an excellent precision and nevertheless be completely wrong. It needs many years of broad experiences in this very wide range of chromatography applicability and it needs very intensive own work in theory, instrumentation and data handling. “Experts” who proudly declare “I have never touched a syringe, I do not need it” are for sure not the best partner to help. Those who declare one theoretical concept as “the ONLY one” had (probably) no time to read, understand and try a next, easier, more practice oriented or even more accurate theoretical concept. This can be based on a completely other background and style, but may help to master chromatography much better.

We had to understand and to use several and most differing theoretical concepts until we found out, that there is no one which is the only one.

What counts is the quality of results.

Institute for Chromatography (IfC) offers the highest quality of information on the market today. Since 1972, we have provided superior service to our customers and have assisted them in achieving their goals. Our over 30 years of experience and commitment to excellence have earned us the reputation as the best Institute for Chromatography in the area. We have trained chromatography newcomers and experts from more than 50 countries in 30 years. Most of the over 6000 course users remember IfC, and the TOP riesling wine palatinate has.

This site shows no any “classical” chromatogram, but chromatography can results in a figure, which looks like a high resolution chromatogram. These are “line chromatograms” which helped us so well to manage and master analytical jobs, that we can recommend their use in practice.

Below are two pictures which show analytical problems (left) and analytical power (right) not known to the chromatographers majority. Therefore in this site the correlation and possible cooperation of GC, HPLC and PLC with each other is a main task as well as the widely underestimated help simple mathematical statistics can give. This site uses “broken english” (sorry, please excuse) but a German version is available in 2006 upon one single mouse click.


At Institute for Chromatography our course attendees received the kind of quality and service they expected from a leader. This were their statement. Our institute was always evolving as the needs changed and as new opportunities were created in chromatography. You can rest assured that, working now with this VIRTUAL Institute for Chromatography, you will enjoy the latest developments globally. The exclusive speciality is “finding and reducing systematic analytical errors in chromatography”. We know of the sensitivity very many chromatographers have about this topic as they fear too much unnecessarily. They will quickly get in agreement with users of their analytical results in the moment the users understand the problem quantitatively and not only based on costs of reputation and money: all decisions based on data are only as correct and complete as the data they got. Those users may even understand what is the fundamental condition for correct data:

* testing - testing - testing (costs time and money)
* calibration with cleanest substances (is hard work)
* repetition of measurements at the optimum of effort over risk -
which is N = 4 (N = 2 is standard but much too bad in costs over risk)
* the smallest repetition number N=1 is useless, no standard deviation value is possible

just because the costs of qualified analytical work are incomparably lower than the costs caused by errors. (Have a look into the page “Errors in Chromatography” and into “Statistics“ in this site) even if you as chemist dislike “statistics”. We used the easiest way of providing the smallest necessary background well knowing our 6000 course colleagues and what they could accept or disliked.
The author knows very well what stands behind these statements: A very small repeatability standard deviation may pay back millions of dollars per day in case of mass production in the pharmaceutical and energy industry.
Critical analytical data which are as correct as technically possible may avoid after-costs of millions in case of health and environmental trouble caused by qualitative and quantitative analytical errors. Analysts work for third parties. They carry a huge responsibility. They should have the best tools and optimal conditions to do their duties correct. Bad analytical data are comparable to wrong medical diagnosis. At least the latter is understood by those who may not understand analysis which produces numbers, words, graphics and costs but nothing to fill containers.

To the two pictures above:
“To Detect and Reduce Systematic Analytical Errors”.

The left figure documents avoidable or repairable PLC sampling errors which cost the analyst a factor of up to ten in precision and accuracy for analytical data. Such sampling error is “standard” especially when direct coupling HPLC with HPTLC. It MUST be corrected by focussing the sample lines from differing HPLC peaks - see for instance R. E. Kaiser, A nine part series on Methods of Detecting and Reducing Systematic Errors in Quantitative Planar Chromatography, starting in
the journal J. Planar Chromatogr. 18 (2005) 50 and reaching part three in 2005.

The nice looking right figure above should remind the “HPLC only” user, that it would be an error, not to know about the analytical power of to days accuracy, precision and versatility of modern instrumentalized planar chromatography with tens of stationary phases, hundreds of mobile phases and far more than hundred often highly sensitive, highly selective and easy to use detectors. The only new problem may be: the additional use of this modern analytical technique in HPLC research chromatography may cause quite some trouble. It may drastically change analytical results. The HPLC-ones may be in full disagreement with the data found prior the easily done marriage of HPLC with HPTLC The figure right has been given to IfC by CAMAG, Switzerland, the global Number One in Modern PLC. See .


NOTE: in this site there are proposals which look like out of date as the instruments, materials and concepts on the market are tuned exclusively for the future of GCxGC and LCxLC already discussed at the second “Hindelang” Capillary Chromatography symposium in the last century.
To days practical chromatography however is still far - very far - away from its limits and there is still no theoretical concept accepted which fits to the total of chromatography ranges.

The author of this site uses intensively the power of chromatography combination i.e. GC with GC, HPLC with PLC. All three techniques are of equal capacity in supporting each other. In fact the co-action of these three is analytically unbeatable. 

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